May 2020: Picture of the Month

On May 30th, amid stormy skies, SpaceX's Crew Dragon became the first rocket to launch American astronauts from U.S. soil since 2011, thus starting a new era of commercial space flight.

February 2020: Picture of the Month

Raffle ticket drawings at the annual ASX Symposium. Here, guest speaker John Cramer draws raffles from a space helmet, in accordance with ASX tradition.

August 2019 Picture of the Month

This picture is an original photograph of the Perseid meteor shower taken by ASX Chief Graphic Designer Hansen Jiang. The photo was created by superimposing two separate pictures of meteors onto each other, which is why two streaks of light can be seen.

May 2019: Picture of the Month

On May 11th, ASX participated in Science Rendezvous, along with many other science departments and organizations at U of T to bring science out of the lab and onto the street. As per tradition, execs donned ceremonial ASX garb, including space suits and cosmic squid hats.

May 2018: Picture of the Month

Why is there a large boulder near the center of Tycho's peak?
Tycho crater on the Moon is one of the easiest features to see, visible even to the unaided eye (inset, lower right).
But at the center of Tycho (inset, upper left) is a something unusual -- a 120-meter boulder.

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Star Talk: Hands-On Astronomy: Building Instruments to Measure Our Cosmos

You may be familiar with some of the fantastic technology and instruments to do astronomy and the pictures we get with them of our cosmos, but how do these telescopes and cameras actually get built? What do experimental astrophysics do all day? I will discuss astronomical instrumentation and what technology we use to measure the sky across the electromagnetic spectrum from UV telescopes to superconducting transition edge sensors. I will describe how these instruments are created and what the careers of astronomy “builders” are like. I will also show some images of the sky taken with different instruments and describe the discoveries they have allowed astronomers to make.

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Star Talk: How to Measure the Universe’s Oldest Light

Zoom Link:

It may surprise you to know that we can still observe the Big Bang, in a way! In fact, every time you accidentally flip to TV static, you’re watching a fragment of it right there! To find out more about this echo of the spawning of the universe, join us online on Wednesday, August 12 at 6:30PM. From that first, immense explosion to now, Dr. Adam Hincks will be delving into the details of the cosmic microwave background radiation! As always, everyone is welcome!

Lecture Abstract:
How to Measure the Universe’s Oldest Light and What it Tells UsThe cosmic microwave background (CMB) is the glow of the
universe from soon after the Big Bang. Today, we can observe this nearly 14 billion-year-old light with microwave telescopes and use it to determine some of the most fundamental properties of the cosmos, such as its age, what it is made out of, and how fast it is expanding. We can also learn how the universe behaved in its very first instants. I will introduce this exciting science and describe how we observe the CMB, focusing in particular on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope and the Simons Observatory—the first currently observing and the second under development—located in the north of Chile.

About the Speaker:
Dr. Adam Hincks is the inaugural holder of the Sutton Family Chair in Science, Christianity and Cultures at U of T’s David A. Dunlap Department of Astronomy & Astrophysics. Dr. Hincks is an ordained Jesuit priest, and is affiliated with both the Vatican Observatory and the Simons Observatory where he researches the CMB

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ASX Star Talk: Why are U of T astronomers investigating the mass of the Milky Way?

By: Adam A. Lam

What is the mass of the Milky Way galaxy, and why is it important to investigate? 

Dr. Gwen Eadie, an Assistant Professor jointly appointed between the University of Toronto’s David A. Dunlap Department of Astronomy & Astrophysics (DADAA) and its Department of Statistical Sciences (DoSS), spoke on these questions at the Astronomy and Space Exploration Society’s first Star Talk of the year on July 8. She discussed her research team’s investigations into the universe guided by statistical studies.

The structure of our universe

The galaxies of our universe — which includes the Milky Way — cluster into the shape of strings, noted Dr. Eadie. 

“To recreate this hierarchical structure in computer simulations of how the universe evolved, we’ve discovered that you have to include something called dark matter,” Dr. Eadie noted. Dark matter is a hypothetical, currently undetectable type of matter that has a gravitational effect on visible matter — but does not otherwise interact with it.

Astronomers believe that every galaxy in the universe, including the Milky Way, lives inside its own dark matter halo, continued Dr. Eadie. This structure of dark matter “represents a really large portion of the mass of the galaxy.”

By estimating the total mass of the Milky Way along with its total visible mass, Dr. Eadie explained, “you can subtract out the matter that we can see and figure out how much dark matter is there. And that might tell us something about the nature of dark matter itself.”

Challenges to measuring the mass of the Milky Way

One way to estimate the mass of the Milky Way, noted Dr. Eadie, is by studying kinematic tracers — in other words, studying the motion of tracer objects. A common kinematic tracer, she continued, is a globular cluster, or a cluster of stars.

A globular cluster moving through space has a velocity with two components — one from the observer’s line of sight and another in the plane of the sky, explained Dr. Eadie. However, astronomers do not always have measurements of both components, posing a challenge for calculations.

In addition, astronomers who measure this velocity do so from the reference frame of Earth. This is another problem, as they must translate these measurements to the reference frame in the centre of the Milky Way, in order to estimate the galaxy’s mass. A third issue is accounting for measurement error from instrumentation for scientists to avoid overconfidence with their results.

Astronomers also have different assumptions about the trajectories of globular clusters — whether they are more elliptical or circular —as they can take millions of years to complete an orbit, noted Dr. Eadie.

Finally, separate research teams also reported differing interpretations about the Milky Way’s mass, as they report these estimates using differing ranges from the galaxy’s centre.

A potential solution by Dr. Eadie’s research team

To tackle these problems of uncertainty, Dr. Eadie and her research team have developed a hierarchical Bayesian method — in other words, a way to apply probability theory to estimate the Milky Way’s mass.

“It allows us to include the measurement uncertainty and allows us to incorporate this incomplete data [of velocity components],” said Dr. Eadie.

Using data collected by the Gaia satellite, an observatory of the European Space Agency that has measured “the position and velocities of over two billion stars in the Milky Way,” Dr. Eadie and her collaborators successfully applied their model to provide an accurate estimate of the galaxy’s mass.

They reported their results in a research paper published in The Astrophysical Journal in 2018. “Doing this kind of analysis could help improve our interpretation [of the galaxy’s dark matter halo],” reflected Dr. Eadie, and help astronomers better evaluate the results of previous research papers about the Milky Way.

Studying dwarf galaxies to create a new estimate

Another focus of Dr. Eadie’s research team are the approximately 30 dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way. Since they orbit the galaxy just like globular clusters, she noted that they “can also be used to measure the mass of the Milky Way.”

“If we can get their positions and velocities and then use a model for the gravitational potential, then we can infer how much mass is there,” she noted.

To create a new estimate, Dr. Eadie is collaborating with undergraduate Xander Dufresne and recent graduate Keslen Murdock at the University of Toronto; recent graduate Anika Slizewski and Dr. Mario Juric at the University of Washington; Dr. Robin Sanderson at the University of Pennsylvania; and Dr. Andrew Wetzel at the University of California, Davis.

“With this new data, we’ve been able to get a new mass estimate for the Milky Way,” she said. “and we’re finding that with the dwarf galaxies, we actually get a much larger mass estimate than we were before.”

“We’re currently trying to figure out exactly why that is, and also why some of these dwarf galaxies seem to play a large role in determining what the [Milky Way’s] mass is.”

Locating ultra-diffuse galaxies with statistical methods

Another aspect of the universe under the focus of Dr. Eadie’s research team is the existence of ultra-diffuse galaxies, which are a relatively recent discovery by astronomers. Scientists are interested in studying them further, especially as they do not yet have a clear understanding of how their formation fits with the evolution of the universe, noted Dr. Eadie — along with why many appear to have large amounts of dark matter, while others appear to have little.

However, due to the ultra-diffuse galaxies’ low emittance of light, astronomers find it difficult to detect them with standard telescopes, she continued. While NASA’s Hubble Telescope can detect them more easily, Dr. Eadie noted that it is competitive to book time on the instrument. Astronomers must therefore narrow down where to point the telescope to find these galaxies for imaging.

To develop a solution to this challenge, Dr. Eadie is collaborating to apply spatial statistics to develop a model for discovering ultra-diffuse galaxies with incoming PhD student Dayi Lee at U of T’s DoSS; Dr. Roberto Abraham at the DADAA; and Dr. Patrick Brown at the DoSS and the Centre for Global Health Research at St. Michael’s Hospital.

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Star Talk: Statistics Meets Astronomy


Link to Facebook Event page:

Big data permeates every facet of modern society, and astronomy is no exception! What do astrophysicists do with the massive amounts of information being constantly recorded by telescopes? To find out, join ASX for our first-ever, socially-distant online Star Talk on Wednesday, July 8. From analysing the behavior of single stars to calculating the mass of the Milky Way, Professor Gwendolyn Eadie will be elucidating the ways in which statistics meets astronomy! As always, everyone is welcome!

Lecture Abstract:
Statistics meets Astronomy: Challenges in Time and Space

Astronomy, like so many other disciplines, has entered an era of big data — large telescopes and all-sky surveys are bringing in petabytes amount of data on a daily basis. The hope is that these large data sets will help us not only untangle mysteries of the universe but also help us discover new phenomena. At the same time, these data sets often come with challenges that require sophisticated statistical analysis. In this talk, I will summarize some of the exciting science being done by my Astrostatistics Research Team at the University of Toronto, from studies of individual stars, to open star clusters and the entire Milky Way Galaxy.

About the Speaker:
Dr. Gwendolyn Eadie is an Assistant Professor jointly-appointed between U of T’s David A. Dunlap Department of Astronomy & Astrophysics and Department of Statistical Sciences. Prof. Eadie is an expert in astrostatistics, and is currently applying modern statistical methods to the study of the Milky Way.

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